Cuffley Industrial Heritage Society

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1698 Thomas Savery, a Devon man, was the first to combine the force of steam and the pressure of the atmosphere. He was granted a patent in 1698 for "Raising water by the impellent force of fire". Savery's "engine" comprised a boiler and a receiver. Steam from the boiler filled the receiver. Cold water poured over the receiver condensed the steam causing a vacuum. Atmospheric pressure forced water up a suction pipe connected to the receiver, which became full of water. Steam from the boiler at pressure blew the water out of the receiver up a delivery pipe and also refilled the receiver with steam. The cycle was then repeated. Valves were fitted in pipes to control the steam and to prevent the water, which was being raised, from going the wrong way. In time the boiler became empty. To refill it with water meant drawing the fire and relieving the boiler of its pressure.

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Royal Timeline


Year,    Name,   House,    Period

Upto 400, Roman Occupation, Roman

400-800, Independent Kingdoms, Dark Ages

802-839, Egbert, King of Wessex, Saxon, Dark Ages

839-856, Ethelwulf, Saxon, Dark Ages

856-860, Ethelbald, Saxon, Dark Ages

860-866, Ethelbert, Saxon, Dark Ages

866-871, Ethelred, Saxon, Dark Ages

871-899, Alfred the Great, Saxon, Dark Ages

899-924, Edward the Elder, Saxon, Dark Ages

924-939, Athelstan, Saxon, Dark Ages

939-946, Edmund I, Saxon, Dark Ages

946-955, Edred, Saxon, Dark Ages

955-959, Edwy, Saxon, Dark Ages

959-975, Edgar, Saxon, Dark Ages

975-979, Edward II the Martyr, Saxon, Dark Ages

979-1013, Ethelred II the Unready, Saxon, Dark Ages

1013-1014, Sweyn, Saxon, Dark Ages

1014-1016, Ethelred II the Unready, Saxon, Dark Ages

1016, Edmund II Ironside, Saxon, Dark Ages

1016-1035, Canute the Great, Saxon, Dark Ages

1035-1037, Harold, Harefoot, Hardicanute, Saxon, Dark Ages

1037-1040, Harold, Harefoot, Saxon, Dark Ages

1040-1042, Hardicanute, Saxon, Dark Ages

1042-1066, Edward III the Confessor, Saxon, Dark Ages

1066, Harold II, Saxon, Dark Ages 1066, Edgar Atheling, Saxon, Dark Ages

1066-1087, William I the Conqueror, Normandy, Norman

1087-1100, William II Rufus, Normandy, Norman

1100-1135, Henry I Beauclerc, Normandy, Norman

1135-1154, Stephen, Normandy, Norman

1154-1189, Henry II Curtmantle, Angevins, Norman

1189-1199, Richard I Coeur de Lion, Angevins, Norman

1199-1216, John Lackland, Angevins, Norman

1216-1272, Henry III, Plantagenet, Middle Ages

1272-1307, Edward I Longshanks, Plantagenet, Middle Ages

1307-1327, Edward II, Plantagenet, Middle Ages

1327-1377, Edward III, Plantagenet, Middle Ages

1377-1399, Richard II, Plantagenet, Medieval

1399-1413, Henry IV, Lancaster, Medieval

1413-1422, Henry V, Lancaster, Medieval

1422-1461, Henry VI, Lancaster, Medieval

1461-1470, Edward IV, York, Medieval

1470-1471, Henry VI, York, Medieval

1471-1483, Edward IV, York, Medieval

1483, Edward V, York, Medieval

1483-1485, Richard III, York, Medieval

1485-1509, Henry VII, Tudor, Tudor

1509-1547, Henry VIII, Tudor, Tudor

1547-1553, Edward VI, Tudor, Tudor

1553, Jane, Tudor, Tudor

1553-1558, Mary I, Tudor, Tudor

1558-1603, Elizabeth I, Tudor, Tudor

1603-1625, James I, Stuart, Stuart

1625-1649, Charles I, Stuart, Stuart

1649, Charles II, Stuart, Stuart

1649-1653, Commonwealth, Commonwealth, Stuart

1653-1658, Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, Protectorate, Stuart

1658-1659, Protectorate of Richard Cromwell, Protectorate, Stuart

1660-1685, Charles II, Stuart, Stuart

1685-1688, James II, Stuart, Stuart

1689-1694, William III and Mary (jointly), Stuart, Stuart

1694-1702, William III (sole ruler), Stuart, Stuart

1702-1714, Anne, Stuart, Stuart

1714-1727, George I, Hanover, Georgian

1727-1760, George II, Hanover, Georgian

1760-1820, George III, Hanover, Georgian

1820-1830, George IV, Hanover, Georgian

1830-1837, William IV, Hanover, Georgian

1837-1901, Victoria, Hanover, Victorian

1901-1910, Edward VII, Saxe-Coburg, Edwardian

1910-1936, George V, Windsor, Edwardian

1936, Edward VIII, Windsor, Edwardian

1936-1952, George VI, Windsor

1952-  Elizabeth II, Windsor

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